The Amarna - a tail of Two Times Robert Cole 2015


Amarna Timeline

Non-scholarship Moses stories
Freud's theory
: Moses, having been an Aten Priest, removed his monotheism to the Jews.
However, the Aten cult loses a public face 50 years before RamessesII, popularly thought the Pharaoh involved.

There are, however, serious studies concluding Moses was another name for Akhenaten himself, in fact.
Moses Hypothesis:
The young Moses, whose mother is Jewish blood, Queen Tiye, is brother to the heir of AmenhotepIII, Thutmoses, who dies at an early age. Queen Tiye's father was Yu, the Sef (military advisor) and best friend of AmenhotepIII. The Pharaoh's second son by Tiye, Moses now inherits and becomes AmenhotepIV, The Royal House, and aristocracy generally, had been flirting with the One God notions of the Jews (Hyksos) before the Hyksos were defeated by Akmoses, first of the 18th Dynasty.
[Manetho lists two Eodus, 480,000 to Jerusalem aligning with the fall of the Hyksos capitol at Avaris and 80,000 at the end of the 18th Dynasty following the confrontation with Ramesses(1) after the death of Horeheb] The Hyksos and all their innovations were
brought into the house of Egypt throughout the18th Dynasty.
AmenhotepIV begins his career pursuing the Aten,
changing his name to Akhenaten and bringing his people to Amarna.
Scenario One: Becoming ever more involved, he reverts to his early house name, Moses sometime around 1334BCE blows off the whole Egyptian Royal House and takes his people to the Hyksos lands in the Nile Isthmus. He is absent from view, some 32 years, through the time of Horemheb. He returns an old man, with his Cobra Staff to regain the throne from Horemheb's assistant, Ramesses (I), who inherited when the childless Horemeb died.
Most likely Scenario Two: There is a coup, from which Ay holds the Royal House together by
interceding before Horemheb and allowing the Amarna to fall. Ay is the political figure, Horemheb, the General who bides his time. Akhenaten was forced to flee. Tut and Ankh-S-Amun are raised, Tut dies, The older Aye, again retains the Royal House by marrying Ankh-S-Amun. In four years, Horemheb becomes Pharaoh and expunges the Aten Cult from history.
On Horemheb's death, the old Moses fails in a last ditch effort to regain the throne from Horemheb's successor, Ramesses (I) and leads his people toward the Jordon River.
The Egyptians called him Akhenaten, the Jews, Moses.

Queen Tiye
Amenhotep, the Great Pharaoh. Reign: June 1386 to 1349 BC or June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC. Coming to power at 6 to 12 years of age, died in regnal year 39. - 1349BC Tiye - born: 1398 BC, died: 1338 BC at 60 years
A woman of power, an outsider not of Egyptian blood, daughter of Yu the Sef Military adviser, whose son inherits.
AmenhotepIII Queen Tiye

Forensic examiners demand that KV55, shown to be Tutankhaten's father, is a 19 to 22 year old, and if true cannot be Akhenaton.
If KV55 was young, it is probable to be Smenkhkare; who is understood to have been born in AmenhotepIII 35 or 36.(1353 or 1351) and would make him 2 to 4 years old at the beginning of Akhenaten's reign, and near 14 when Tutankhaten was born.
If old, KV55 may be Akhenaten; who would then seem to be Tutankhaten's father.

If KV55 and KV35YL, the Younger Lady, are the parents of Tutankhaten, as DNA testing shows, and KV55 is Smenkhkare, he would possibly have been a young co-regent with Akhenaten, to then become Pharaoh and husband to Merytaten before dying around 1334 at 17 to 22 years old, leaving his young son in line.
Tutankhaten's mother, KV35YL would be Smenkhkare's elder sister and has been judged in her mid-twenties at death, violently murdered in the midst of the Amarna. Young Tutankhaten was let lived.
See Younger Lady below.
This would have been at the time Smenkhkare was associated with Merytaten.
If Smenkhkare is 19 to 22 in 1334, his mother, Queen Tiye would have been in her mid to late 40s at his birth.

The Younger Lady
Stabbed in the side, she was rolled over for a death blow to the face, probably spear. DNA analysis shows the Younger Lady is the daughter of AmenhotepIII and Tiye, sister of Akhenaten and the mother of Tutankhaten - the only boy. Being a royal but second to Nefertiti, who failed finding an heir after six daughters, it is conceivable the Younger Lady may have colluded with Thebes (Waset) in an unsuccessful attempt to save the withering Amarna Royal House from its then apparent disintegration. Such a crime may be the only scenario that would make the murder of Tutankhaten's mother plausible. Tutankhaten lives regardless of paternity, whether Akhenaten or Smenkhkare. Smenkhkare goes with Merytaten and expands his position into a Co-Regency with Akhenaten with intention to inherit.
If this were some mere jealously or a power play on the part of Nefertiti, as has been put forward, certainly Tutankhaten would not have been allowed to survive. However, the principals were more sophisticated. Until an heir was apparent, Tutankhaten, the only boy, would live.
The Younger Lady is the sister of the Pharaoh, an equal. Only high crime, that posed a danger to the throne from their perspective, could force such punishment.
From the wounds, we can see the murder seems to have been a graphic and fluid scene, not the result of a crimes trial and execution. Therefore we can imagine an active coup stopped in progress. A good study might ask who were the actors in Thebes at this time and who may have been go-betweens? Or who would have been thought so, by the Younger lady?

It also may be true
that a conspiracy of the Younger Lady for the throne could have been a "sting operation" set up by Nefertiti or her supporters. Obviously the Younger Lady was a danger to their presently organized Royal House, with it's six daughters and lack of an heir. The precipitation of a coup could have any one of a very few possible origins, the Younger lady and her immediate advisers, Thebes or an orchestration from without, Nefertiti being one.
A pressing aspect for the Younger Lady would have been to stop her son's father, Smenkhkare from having a new heir with Merytaten; an effort which was then unsuccessful.

The above chronologies leaves me comfortable concluding the Younger Lady was murdered for treason against the Royal House.

Another Important Aspect: The Younger Lady is the daughter of Queen Tiye (below, left), widow of the Great King, AmenhotepIII. Tiye lived with the actions of her children. Was she presiding, or a witness? If the Younger Lady was colluding with Waset and the Amun Priesthood, did Queen Tiye's Hyksos religion sway? Certainly she remained.

See Younger Lady

This lends a certain credence to the notion that the Younger Lady's plot may have been wholly genuine and egregious, and not a "sting" from within.
Queen Tiye's choice would be stark: The Aten and Akhenaten's Royal House over the Amun and the life of her daughter. Or did she watch helplessly?

Kiya: Younger Lady? At the time the Younger Lady disappears, the images of Kiya the "Court Ornament" are replaced at Amarna with images of Merytaten, now set in relationship with Smenkhkare, father of the Younger Ladys' son, Tutankhaten. This points to Kiya's concurrent equality with Merytaten and then also speaks for the possibility of the "Younger Lady" being the disgraced Kiya as her dates, temple inscriptions and station, their ages, the events and time coincide.
However, scholarship provides speculative claims of Mitanni origins for Kiya with no definitive remains to show parentage. The contemporary exchange of images in the Sunshade, in my view, proves equality of station and kingship. Therefore, The Younger Lady and Kiya are one and the same.

AmenhotepIV (Akhenaten) shares power with father, Amenhotep for 8 years, then becomes Pharaoh in 1349. He worships Aten, builds and moves to Amarna in his 5th regnal year and changed his name to Akhenaten. died: 1336 BC or 1334 BC
However, note Timeline 2, at left.
            Hymn to Aten - tomb of Ay
Nefertiti has six daughters. Eldest is Merytaten, the "Most Beloved", who in time becomes Pharaoh.
New: They were still in power, together in year16.

Merytaten, Born 1348BC (Timeline One), year 1 of Akhenaten's reign. Married Smenkhkare and became the female Pharaoh, Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure following Smenkhkare's death. See Merytaten
She is of the Aten cult and her time closes when Tutankhaten is raised. 1332
However, note Timeline 2.
Smenkhkare is possibly of KV55 and father of the only royal male, Tutankhaten with the Younger Lady (see above). He is the young brother of Akhenaten and groomed for the throne with Akhenaten's eldest daughter, Merytaten. Smenkhkare becomes co-regent with Akhenaten in his teens and Pharaoh for but a year.

Timeline Two allows us to see Merytaten as Princess, Queen, Pharaoh and exceptional mind who would have changed all worlds.
Merytaten  Smenkhkare

The Aten cult wanes with the fading of it's leader, Akhenaten.
9 year old, Tutankhaten Marries his 13 year old sister.
Their names are changed in a repudiation of the Aten Cult.
Ankh-S-Amun marries her brother and becomes Queen of Egypt.
In 10 years, Tutankhamun dies and Ankhesenamun is swept into a lost and tragic struggle against over-powering forces.     Hymn to Aten

Suppiluliuma's Egyptian Widow depends on true dating and defining death dates for (1) Merytaten, (2) Tutankhamun and most importantly: Suppiluliuma.
Dakhamunzu and the Zannanza Affair depend on Suppiluliuma's actual active years. Dates in common sources cannot be trusted, as most of these writers are simply copying and imagining. The Zannanza Affair concerns the Egyptian Widow and has centered on Nefertiti, Merytaten or Ankhesenamun. Defining their dates against those of Suppiluliuma is crucial. Another dating system, based on Moon-phases against monument inscriptions, put with new finds of Pharaonic wine-bottling dates that create a 14 year reign for Horemheb need to be parsed out.
Regardless, I have come to the decision that only one possibility exists. Dakh - Amun - Zu shows a woman of the Amun, not of the vanquished Aten. - Both Nefertiti and Merytaten are public creatures of Aten, where in both Hieroglyphs and lineage fact, Ankh-s-amun can only be the Pharaonic Queen in question. Dakh (Ankh) Amun S (Zu) are the characters of her name and therefore can only be her name.